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  • 压缩机管道安装原则
  • 本站编辑:高伦制冷发布日期:2018-01-22 10:45 浏览次数:
压缩机的管路系统包括压缩机进气管到压缩机排气管的截止阀之间的设备、管道及其附件所组成的系统,此外还包括与安全阀连接的管路以及气量调节、放空等管路。
The piping system of the compressor includes the system composed of the compressor inlet pipe, the cut-off valve of the compressor exhaust pipe, the pipe and its accessories, and the pipeline connected with the safety valve, as well as the gas volume regulation and emptying pipeline.
 
1、对管路系统的要求、管道通径与连接形式的选取
1. Selection of pipeline system, pipe path and connection form
(1)管路应有足够的强度和良好的密封性,保证管路工作可靠。
(1) the pipeline should have enough strength and good sealing to ensure the reliable work of the pipeline.
(2)管路阻力小且紧凑。
(2) the pipe resistance is small and compact.
(3)支撑可靠、振动小、能适应气流脉动和温度的变化。
(3) the support is reliable, the vibration is small, and it can adapt to the change of air pulsation and temperature.
(4)有切断供气倒流和超压安全泄放装置,保证系统工作安全。
(4) there is a safe discharge device to cut off the supply of air supply and overpressure, so as to ensure the safety of the system.
(5)便于拆装和维护。
(5) easy to disassemble and maintain.
 
2、管线安装时防止共振措施
2. Prevention of resonance in pipeline installation
(1)出入口缓冲罐和油水分离器应尽量靠近压缩机气缸,管路越短越好。在安装位置许可时,缓冲罐应与压缩机的出入口直接相连,少用或不用弯头,必须使用弯头时应避免使用90°弯头。
(1) the outlet buffer tank and the oil-water separator should be as close to the compressor cylinder as possible. The shorter the better the pipeline is. When the installation position is allowed, the buffer tank shall be directly connected with the inlet and outlet of the compressor, and less or no elbow shall be used. When using elbow, the 90 degree elbow should be avoided.
 
(2)气缸进出口的支架,由于气流的脉动作用,应特别注意其疲劳强度,管托要有减振措施,支架结构可选用有木块衬垫的固定支架或弹簧支架。
(2) due to the pulsating effect of air flow, the support for cylinder inlet and outlet should pay special attention to its fatigue strength. There should be vibration reduction measures for pipe supports, and fixed supports or spring supports with wooden blocks can be used for supporting structures.
 
(3)压缩后的脉冲气流,虽有缓冲罐进行缓冲,还会有相当一部分冲击载荷由管路传到支架上,使管路、支架和支架基础一齐振动。故支架位置应选择在有防振措施,能承受住振动的地方,比较好能设在有防振措施、能吸收振幅的压缩机基础上,或用基础直接固定在地面上。切忌与梁、柱楼板、墙、房架等直接接触,以免把振幅传递给厂房,使厂房也被振动。
(3) although the compressed pulse air flow is buffered by the buffer tank, a considerable part of the impact load will be transferred from the pipeline to the support, so that the pipelines, supports and support foundations will vibrate together. Therefore, the position of the support should be selected in the place where the vibration control measures are able to withstand the vibration. It is best to set up on the basis of the compressor that has vibration prevention measures and can absorb the amplitude, or directly fix on the ground with the foundation. Avoid direct contact with beam, column slab, wall, room frame, etc. so as not to transfer the amplitude to the factory building, so that the workshop is also vibrated.
 
(4)为提高稳定性,减少基础的振动,基础的质量至少应为压缩机和电机质量的3~5倍。同时在可能的情况下,应降低基础的高度。例如,我国某厂使用的三台立式双缸作用一级重整循环氢压缩机,采用单层厂房地面布置,基础高出地面约80cm,机组多年来运转正常。而该厂另二台立式双缸双作用一级加氢裂化循环氢压缩机,因为照顾到同一层操作面,将基础抬高了2m,机组运行时振动较严重,投产多年来运转一直不正常,其中基础抬高有直接的影响。
(4) in order to improve the stability and reduce the vibration of the base, the quality of the base should be at least 3~5 times the compressor and the motor quality. At the same time, the height of the base should be reduced if possible. For example, three vertical double cylinder primary cycle reforming hydrogen compressors used in a factory in our country are arranged on the ground with a single floor plant. The foundation is about 80cm higher than the ground. The unit has been running normally for many years. The other two vertical double cylinder double acting first stage hydrocracking circulating hydrogen compressors, which take care of the same operation surface, raise the foundation by 2m. The operation of the unit is more serious. The operation has been abnormal for many years, and the foundation elevation has a direct impact.
 
(5)对于角形压缩机,曲轴应与压缩机出入口的集合管平行;而对于对称平衡形压缩机,曲轴应与入口的集合管垂直,这样可以缩短压缩机出入口的管路,减小振动。
(5) for the angle compressor, the crankshaft should be parallel to the collecting pipe of the compressor inlet and outlet, while for the symmetrical balanced compressor, the crankshaft should be perpendicular to the collecting pipe of the inlet, so that the pipeline of the compressor inlet and outlet can be shortened, and the vibration can be reduced.
 
3、其他注意事项
3. Other matters of attention
(1)为避免液体进入气缸,引起撞缸事故,在压缩湿气体时,压缩机入口应设气、液分离罐,并有排液措施,管路的低点应排渣。
(1) in order to avoid liquid entry into the cylinder and cause collision accidents, the compressor inlet should be equipped with gas and liquid separating tank, and liquid drainage measures should be taken. The low point of the pipeline should be slagging.
 
(2)调节阀门和排凝放空阀应以流程焉序布置为宜,特别在多级压缩的情况下更应注意。阀门调节组的安装位置要集中,要放在能清晰看到指示仪表和机组运行的地方,以防误操作。螺杆式和往复式等容积式压缩机每一级压缩都要有安全阀,以备各级超压时泄压用。安全阀应放在便于检修的地方,以适应安全阀容易损坏需经常检修定压的特点。为了检修定压时不影响压缩机的运转,安全阀前应设有切断阀。
(2) the adjustment of valve and discharge valve should be arranged in order, especially in the case of multistage compression. The installation position of the valve adjustment group should be concentrated. It should be placed clearly where the indicator and unit operation can be clearly seen in order to prevent misoperation. Screw type and reciprocating reciprocating compressors must have safety valves for each level of compression for pressure relief at all levels of overpressure. The safety valve should be placed in a place that is easy to repair, so as to adapt to the characteristics that the safety valve is easily damaged and the constant pressure is often overhauled. In order to repair the pressure without affecting the operation of the compressor, the safety valve should have a cutting valve.
 
(3)往复式和螺杆式压缩机的末级出口要装有单向阀,以防高压气体倒回机体,对螺杆压缩机尤为重要。
(3) the final export of reciprocating and screw compressors are equipped with one-way valve to prevent high-pressure gas into the body, is particularly important for screw compressor.
 
(4)压缩可燃易爆的氢气、石油气、天然气的压缩机,在开停工时要用惰性气体或氮气置换,因此应有氮气或惰性气体置换管路,置换气管路的入口接至进口切断阀后,捧空管接至出口切断阀前,排空管的高度要高出压缩机厂房1m。
(4) compressor for flammable and explosive gas, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, in the shutdown when the use of inert gas or nitrogen replacement, so the proper nitrogen or inert gas pipeline replacement, replacement of gas pipeline connected to the inlet entrance shut-off valve, shut-off valve connected to the outlet pipe holding before emptying pipe height high 1m compressor plant.
 
(5)对多级压缩的容积式压缩机,除各级之间应设置必要的调节线路外,始末两级之间要有闭路循环管路,以供开、停工和换机时使用。如某厂加氢精制新氢气压缩机,为二段压缩机,仅有一回管路,无二回管路,开停工操作时十分不方便。
(5) the volume compressor multi-stage compression, in addition to set up the necessary regulation line should be between levels, have closed circulation through the pipeline between the two, for the use of open, shutdown and replacement. For example, a new hydrogen compressor in a factory is a two stage compressor, only one back line and no two circuit. It is very inconvenient to open and stop operation.
 
(6)在计算管路热伸长以决定热补偿量时,应把设备的热伸长量也计算进去,即总的热伸长量等于设备热伸长量与管路热伸长量之和。
(6) in the calculation of pipeline thermal elongation to determine thermal compensation amount, the amount shall be calculated into the thermal elongation of equipment, which is equal to the total amount of thermal expansion and thermal elongation of equipment and pipeline thermal expansion.
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